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The German term “Wende” (lit. “turn”) describes the political and societal change in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) following the peaceful revolution in 1989. The revolution led to the end of the GDR and the reunification with the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Hundreds of thousands of East German citizens protested the restrictions of free speech and movement as well the lack of free elections. Many East Germans applied for permission to leave the GDR or fled to West German embassies in the GDR or other Communist states. Others tried to flee to the West through Hungary which had recently opened its borders. This peaceful revolution eventually led to the collapse of the East German regime and the opening of the Inner German Border. Following the fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, the GDR hold free elections in spring of 1990. The newly elected parliament voted for the reunification with the FRG.