Publicly owned operations or state owned companies were companies in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). They were owned and managed by the state. The majority of companies in the GDR were state owned. These were either nationalised companies or companies created by the East German state. These companies were grouped in to “Kombinate”. Depending on their size, they managed by the commune, district or a ministry. Following the German reunification, the companies were privatised and many were downsized or closed.