Naturalisation means acquisition of citizenship by a foreigner. In Germany, there are certain conditions required in order to get naturalised: People who wish to be naturalised as adults need to be in possession of an unlimited residence permit and must have lived in Germany legally for at least eight years. They further have to be financially independent from social services and are not allowed to have a criminal record. They are required to speak German at a minimum level of B1 and will have to commit to the democratic values of the Federal Democratic Republic of Germany. Since the reform of the citizenship law in 2000, young people can apply for citizenship on their own from the age of 16. Since 2008, people who wish to be naturalised further need to pass a citizenship test that includes questions of German living conditions, law and society. Children under 16, people who have a German secondary school diploma or a university degree in social sciences, law, or related subjects from German university are exempted from this rule.