The field of cross-cultural pedagogy was developed within the educational sciences to critique and replace the field of foreigner education (s. foreigner education). Unlike the critiqued foreigner education, cross-cultural pedagogy expanded its focus from the supposed deficits of migrant children to the integration of a plural society in general and values its heterogeneity. Cross-cultural pedagogy seeks to support integration and the peaceful coexistence in a plural society. However, some pedagogues critique this approach as well and propose the concept of transculturation. This transcultural approach considers cultures not to be separate but merged units with fluid boundaries.