The term Antifa is an abbreviation for Antifascist Action and describes left-wing and autonomous activists and groups that fight against racism and nationalism. The scene is heterogeneous and includes a variety of groups and positions. The term originated from the 1920s resistance against the fascism in Italy as well as the beginning of National Socialism in Germany. In the 1980s, squatters and left-wing groups formed Antifa-groups to protect their projects as well as potential victims of neo-Nazi attacks. They disturbed racist and right-wing activities and disseminated information about racist and right-wing activities and organised protests. Today, there are tensions within the Antifa-szene due to critique of Israel and even antisemitism as well as the use of violence against counter protesters and security forces.